======= Second Floor (access from S-E corner) =========
    Zhalre Lhakhang
    The chapel immediately above the Jowo Rinpoche Lhakhang was
    remodelled by Zangkar Lotsawa when the lower chamber was enlarged.
    Only the westernmost part of the original chamber remains, offering a
    view of the chapel below, and this is approached by a recently
    constructed catwalk - the origianl approach being walled-off to
    prevent pilgrims walking above the Jowo Lhakhang. The remaining E
    inner wall contains origianl frescoes. Unforunately, the 7th century
    frescoes of the N wall were removed in the 1980s. The southern
    frescoes and the well-preserved three-panelled mural of the E wall
    suggest a synthesis of Tibetan and Pala styles, predating the
    integrated Tibeto-Newar style of the 15th century.
    Guru Lhakhang (Barkhang Lopon)
    A 7th century tapering door-frame with metal lattices leads into this
    chapel, where the central image depicts Padmasambhava in the awesome
    form known as Nangsi Zilnon, flanked by his two foreign consorts and
    eight manifestations. The original Pala-style paintings of the
    outside walls (probably by Zangkar Lotsawa) were restored in 1991.
    Demchok Lhakhang
    Here the principal image depicts the mediational deity Cakrasamvara
    in union with the female consort Vajravarahi.
    Thuwang Tsokhor
    Bypassing three empty chapels, the pilgrim arrives at this shrine,
    which has images of Shakyamuni surrounded by the Eight Bodhisattvas;
    and also Jowo Shakyamuni, flanked by Shariputra and Maudgalyayana.
    Ku-nga Gonkhang (Gonkhangphuk)
    This chapel contains nine 1.5m images of the protector deities,
    including the five forms of Pehar known as Gyelpo Ku-nga, as well as
    Hayagriva, Shridevi, and Nechung, and the gatekeepers Du-tsen and
    Chogyel Songtsen Lhakhang
    The main shrine of the W wing, surmounted by a gilded roof, is
    dedicated to King Songtsen Gampo. Note the 7th century door-frames.
    The king's ale pot, known as Chogyel Trungben, or Chang-no Tamgochen,
    which may perhaps be of Scythian or Kushan origin, is kept in a
    cabinet on a wooden stand between the two gates. The central image of
    the king, flanked by his two foreign wives, is said to have been
    originall commissioned by Bhrikuti (the middle finger of the main
    image is said to be that of Songtsen himself and the image an exact
    likeness). Behind are images of the Seven Generations of Past Buddhas
    and wall-painted mandalas. The S wall has further images of Songtsen
    Gampo with Wengcheng and his Tibetan consort.
    Thupa Rigdruk Lhakhang
    The chapel of the NW corner is dedicated to Four-armed
    Avalokiteshvara, flanked by the Six Sages of the Six Realms. Note the
    multiplicity of murals depicting Amitayus in red on a cream
    The chapels of the N wing and those beyond the Zhalre Lhakhang on the
    E-wing have been destroyed and are presently unrestored.
    ========= Third Floor (access from the SE and NW corners) =========
    The frescoes of the third floor depict the protectors, especially
    Shridevi. Many murals however have four or five layers of paint, of
    which the lower layers have yet to be inspected. Only three chapels
    are open.
    Pelhachok dukhang (Meru Tshokhang)
    This chapel is dedicated to the protectress Shridevi, and it is
    cared for by the monks of Meru Sarpa Tratsang. There are new murals
    in white, red and gold on black background, which depict Shridevi,
    Mahakala, and Bhairava. The murals outside this chapel depict
    Six-armed Mahakala, Dalai Lama V, the regent Desi Sangye Gayatso,
    and Gushri Qan, with Magzorma, Shridevi, and the Twelve Tenma.
    Palden Lhamo Lhakhang
    This chapel contains a peaceful image of Shridevi.
    Pelha Bedongma Lhakhang
    Here, the wrathful image of frog-faced Shridevi is separeated from
    the previous chapel by a partition wall. On the 13th day of the 10th
    lunar month, this image would be displayed for 3 days, and on the
    full-moon day it would be carried around the Barkhor during the
    festival known as Pelhe Rida.
    Closed chapels on this floor include: (W) Lama Lhakhang,
    Tsephak Lhakhang, Sangdejiksum Lhakhang, Neten Chudruk Lhakhang;
    (N) Menlha Deshegye Lhakhang, Menlha Tsokhor Lhakhang,
    Tonpa Toskhor Lhakhang, Drelzam, Deshegye Lhakhang, Thuwang Tsokhor;
    and (E) Jowo Utho Lhakhang.
    ======== The Roof ============
    There are four gilded roofs (gyaphib) and four corner chapels on the
    roof of the Jokhang. The former comprise: the Jowo Gyaphib in the
    Centre-East, the largest gilded roof, which was donated by Tew Mul,
    the ruler of Yartse Kingdom of W Tibet in the 14th century; the
    Jampa Gyaphib in the Centre-South; the Chogyel Gyaphib in the
    Centre-West, which was commissioned by Dalai Lama V; and the
    Tuje Gyaphib in the Centre-North, which was donated by the kings
    Punimul and Pratimul of Yartse in the late 14th century.
    As to the four corner chapels: the Pelhayum Drakmo Lhakhang in the
    SE (now closed) is dedicated to Magzorma, the Tsering Chenga Lhakhang
    in the SW (now closed) is cared for by the monks of Tsurphu; the
    Neten Chudruk Lhakhang in the NE (now closed) was formerly utitlized
    by the Tibetan Government during the Great Prayer Festival; and the
    Lhachak Shokhang in the NW (now closed) once functioned as a
    government stationery supplier. Also on the Jokhang roof are the
    Lhabum Lubum charm vases; and the Tamnyen Darchen flag, which was
    erected by Desi Sonam Chopel following the defeat of Beri Kingdom
    during the 17th century. The bright sunlit roofs present a great
    contrast to the dark smoke-filled chapels of the Jokhang's interior.
    Gyurme Dorje
    Trade & Travel Publications Ltd. January 1996
    ISBN 0 900571 69 X
2005-12-14 03:46:14  By: 西藏旅游  返回顶部 返回顶部
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